Catalogue of Russian Federation Antarctic Meteorology Data


Last revision: 16 October 2008

See also: [Russian Antarctic Program & Antarctic Expedition (RAE)][Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute]
[Russian Antarctic stations - overview][Access data on Antarctic Meteorology]

Content:
[List of Russian (Soviet) Antarctic stations and bases][Main parameters measured]
[Summary of upper-air soundings][Available records of upper-air observations]
[Ozone][Trace gases][Climate data records] [Contact for information]

This catalogue includes a brief historical description of Russian hydrometeorological research in Antarctica as well as the coordinates and periods of operation of all the stations and bases set up by Russian (Soviet) Antarctic expeditions.

It also presents a summary of the meteorological and upper-air parameters recorded at permanently operating stations, as well as their periods of observation. Also described are the records of meteorological and aerological information, total ozone, carbon monoxide and methane levels, as well as climate data.

The first plans for a Soviet Antarctic expedition were drawn up just before the second International Polar Year (1932-1933), but the expedition never took place. Soviet Antarctic expeditions began general, comprehensive scientific research covering the Southern oceans as well as the Antarctic mainland in 1956, when preparations were begun for International Geophysical Year (IGY).

In February 1956 the participants in the Soviet Antarctic Expedition established the Mirny observatory, a scientific station on the Antarctic mainland. In May 1956, observations were begun at Pionerskaya, an inland station located some 375 kilometres south of Mirny. In October 1956 the Oasis station began working, located at the Bunger Oasis, on the coast of Wilkes Land. The inland station Vostok-1, Komsomolskaya and Vostok were founded in 1957; the latter was located near the South Magnetic Pole. In 1958 the Sovetskaya and Polyus Nedostupnosti (Pole of Inaccessibility) stations began observations.

Between 1956 and 1958 eight stations were thus established under the IGY programme. After IGY, observations continued at the Mirny observatory and the Vostok station.

In the following years a number of permanent, seasonal and temporary stations and bases were built.

From 1968, Molodezhnaya became the main base of Antarctic research as well as the Antarctic Meteorological Centre and remained such till the station closure on July 1st, 1999.

From that date till present moment the principal Russian Federation Antarctic station is Mirny Observatory.

Year-round observations are now made at five stations of the Russian Antarctic Expedition (RAE): Bellingshausen, Mirny, Novolazarevskaya, Progress and Vostok. They measure meteorological and upper-air parameters, receive satellite information, an measure the levels of total ozone and of several other atmospheric trace gases. They also conduct a number of studies of the ionosphere.

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List of Russian (Soviet) Antarctic stations and field bases

Name Coordinates Synoptic index number Elevation above sea level (m) Date opened Date closed
Molodezhnaya Antarctic Meteorological Centre (AMC) 6740'S 4551'E 89542 40 14.01.1963 01.07.1999 AWS
Mirny observatory 6633'S 9301'E 89592 35 11.02.1956 active
Vostok station 7828'S 10648'E 89606 3488 16.12.1957 active
Novolazarevskaya station 7046'S 1150'E 89512 102 18.02.1961 active
Bellingshausen 6212'S 5856'E 89050 15.4 22.02.1968 active
Leningradskaya station 6930'S 15923'E 89657 300 25.02.1971 31.03.1991 AWS
Russkaya station 7446'S 13652'W 89132 124 09.03.1980 16.03.1990 AWS
Vostok-1 station 7209'S 9634'E 89594 3252 20.04.1957 01.12.1957
Komsomolskaya station 7406'S 9730'E 89596 3500 06.11.1957 09.03.1959
Lazarev station 6959'S 1255'E 89511 24 10.03.1959 26.02.1961
Bunger Oasis station 6616S' 10045'E 89601 29 15.10.1956 17.11.1958
Pioneerskaya station 6944'S 9531'E 89593 2741 27.05.1956 15.01.1959
Pole of Inaccessability station 8206'S 5458'E 89550 3800 14.12.1958 26.12.1958
Sovetskaya station 7823'S 8732'E 89557 3662 16.02.1958 03.01.1959
Progress station 6924'S 7624'E 89574 14.6
01.04.1988 active
Druzhba 6643'S, 8624'E 89111 191 20.05.1960 06.08.1960
Pobeda 6439'S 9854'E 89339 25 09.05.1960 12.08.1960
Ostrov Drigalskogo (Drygalski Is.) AWS 6545'S 9228'E 89222 327 November 1958 March 1960
Ostrov Pobeda (Is.) AWS 6439'S 9854'E 89339 25 July 1960 January 1961
Geological camp at Richardson Lake 6650'S 5050'E   20 06.02.1962 18.03.1962
Camp at Zimmerman Mountain 7119'S 1313'E   1500 13.02.1959 26.02.1959
Mountain Camp No. 1 7140'S 932'E   1820 31.12.1959 02.02.1960
Mountain Camp No. 2 7147'S 549'E   1640 23.01.1960 12.02.1960
Mountain Camp No. 3 7203'S 116'E   1510 17.01.1960 12.02.1960
Mountain Camp No. 4 7126'S 1129'E   1370 28.01.1961 06.02.1961
Druzhnaya-1 7734'S 4013'W    45 31.12.1975 25.12.1986
Druzhnaya-2 7430'S 6200'W     08.01.1982 February 1986
Soyuz 7035'S 6847'E    
03.12.1982 28.02.1989
Druzhnaya-3 7106'S 1049'W     19.01.1987  
Druzhnaya-4 6945'S 8343'E     01.01.1987  18.04.1995
Kupol "B" 7704'S 9455'E   3850    
Kupol "S" 7444'S 12422'E   3100    
Salyut 6532'S 9630'E     01.02.1978 27.04.1978
Sodruzhestvo 6943'S 7344'E     1971 1974

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Main parameters measured at permanently operating stations

No. Element Molodezhnaya AMC
(Antarctic
Meteorological
Centre)
Mirny
Observatory
Novolaza-
revskaya
Bellingshausen Vostok Russkaya Lenin- gradskaya
1 Surface air temperature
1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
2 Surface air temperature mean minimum
1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
3 Surface  air temperature mean  maximum
1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
4 Ground surface temperature 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
5 Surface pressure 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
6 Mean sea level pressure 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
7
Wind direction 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
8
Wind speed 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
9
Visibility 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
10 Total cloud cover 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
11 Low cloud cover 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
12 Phenomena 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
13 Significant weather events 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
14
Precipitation
1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
15 Relative humidity 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
16 Absolute humidity 1963-99 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-91
17 Snow cover 1963-92 1956-92 1961-91 1968- 1958-91 - 1971-78
18 Direct solar radiation 1963-92 1956-92 1961-91 1968- 1958-91 - 1971-78
19 Diffused solar radiation 1963-92 1956-92 1961-91 1968- 1958-91 - 1971-78
20 Total solar radiation 1963-97 1956- 1961- 1968- 1958- 1980-90 1971-89
21
Reflected solar radiation 1963-92 1956-92 1961-91 1968-77 1958-91  -  1971-75
22
Albedo 1963-92 1956-92 1961-96 1968-77,2002 1958-91  - 1971-75
23
Sunshine duration 1963-92 1956-92 1961-91 1968-77 1958-91  -  1971-75

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Summary of upper-air sounding at the RF Antarctic stations

Number Station Name Date Observation began Observation times Remarks
1 Molodezhnaya 1964 1964-1969 00 GMT
1970-1991 00 12 GMT
1992-1994 00 GMT
Interuptions in: 05-12.1994, 01-04.1995, 05-06.1996, 06-07.1997
2 Mirny 1956 1956 00, 12 GMT
1957 00, 06, 12, 18 GMT
1958-1982 00, 12 GMT 
1983 00 GMT
Interruptions in 08.1960
3 Vostok-1 1957 00 GMT

4
Vostok
1958
1958-1992 00, 12 GMT
Interruptions in: 02-12.1962, 01-04.1963, 05-12.1982, 01-04.1983
5
Novolazarevskaya
1961 1961-1979 00, 12 GMT
1980 00 GMT
Interruptions in: 03.1961,  03.1971, 03-12.1992, 01-12.1994, 05-12.1996, 01-06.1997, 05.2002
6
Bellingshausen 1969 00 GMT
Interruptions in: 05.1980, 12.1996, 01-10.1997
7
Leningradskaya 1983 00 GMT
Interruptions in: 06-12.1985, 01-03.1986

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Available records of upper-air observations at Russian Antarctic stations

Mirny (89592)
Times: 00, 12
Feb 1956 - present
Vostok (89606)
00, 12
Jan 1958 - Jan 1992
Molodezhnaya (89542)
00,12
Apr 1964 - Jan 1998
Novolazarevskaya (89512)
00
Jan 1961 - present
Bellinsghausen (89050)
00
Mar 1969 - Jan 1999
Leningradskaya (89657)
00
Jan 1983 - Apr 1991

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Ozone

Mean daily and mean monthly ozone column (M-83/M-124 filter ozonmeter):
Mirny 1974-
Novolazarevskaya 1987-1991, 1999-
Vostok 1978, 1981, 1986-1991,1999-

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Trace gases

Mean daily CO and CH4 column (infrared spectrometer):
Molodezhnaya 1977-1978
Mirny 1982-1986, 1989
Novolazarevskaya 2000, 2002
Mean daily CH4 surface concentration:
Bellinsghausen 2003

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Climate data records

The records include the monthly and annual means for surface temperature, pressure, wind speed, absolute humidity (partial water vapour pressure), total cloud cover, low cloud cover, precipitation, as well as the variance and maximum and minimum values for these parameters at the following fixed stations:

Bellingshausen 1968-
Novolazarevskaya
1961-
Leningradskaya 1971-1991
Mirny 1956-
Molodezhnaya
1963-1999
Russkaya 1980-1990
Vostok
1958-1993, 1995, 1997-

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Contact for information

Dr.  Victor E. Lagun
Laboratory of Ocean and Climate Antarctic Studies
Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute
38, Bering str.,
199397 St.Petersburg
Russian Federation

Tel: +7 (812) 352 2950
Fax: +7 (812) 352 2688
E-mail: lagun@aari.nw.ru or nadc@aari.nw.ru

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